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## How to find whether two sets of functional dependencies are equal or not?

Let F and G be two different sets of functional dependencies holding on a relation R. These two functional dependencies are called equivalent if F+ = G+, i.e., if closure of the set F is equal to the closure of set G.

In other words,
Two sets of functional dependencies F and G are said to be equal if;

• Every FD in G can be inferred (derived) from the functional dependencies in F, and
• Every FD in F can be inferred (derived) from the functional dependencies in G.

Alternative definition;
Two sets of functional dependencies F and G are said to be equal if;

• F can cover G, and
• G can cover F.

Example:

Let R (A, B, C, D, E) be a relation with set of functional dependencies F = { A BC, A D, CD E } and G = { A BCE, A ABD, CD E }. Is F = G?

Does F cover G?
If set of FDs of G can be inferred from F, then we would say that F covers G.
The FD A BCE of G can be inferred from the FDs A BC, A D, and CD E of F. [here, A gives BCD. If you know C and D then E can be derived]
The FD A ABD of G can be inferred from the FDs A BC, and A D of F.
The FD CD E of G can be inferred from the FD CD E of F.
All the three FDs of G can be inferred from FDs of F. Hence, F covers G.

Does G cover F?
If set of FDs of F can be inferred from G, then we would say that G covers F.
The FD A BC of F can be inferred from the FD A BCE of G.
The FD A D of F can be inferred from the FD A ABD of G.
The FD CD E of F can be inferred from the FD CD E of G.
All the three FDs of F can be inferred from FDs of G. Hence, G covers F.
Hence, we would say F is equivalent to G.

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