Tuesday, April 14, 2020

Notes on Morphology in Natural Language Processing

Morphology in natural language processing, what is morphology, components of a morphological parser

Morphology in Natural Language Processing

In linguistics, morphology is the study of the internal structure and functions of the words, and how the words are formed from smaller meaningful units called morphemes.

Morphology, the study of the correspondences between grammatical information, meaning, and form inside words, is one of the central linguistic disciplines. 

In simpler terms, morphology is the knowledge of meaningful components of the words.

It is the study of the following different aspects of natural language;
(Important parts of a morphological processor)

  • Lexicon 

    • It refers to the dictionary of words (stem/root word), their categories (noun, verb, adjective, etc.), their sub-categories (singular noun, plural noun, etc.) and the affixes that can be attached to these stems.

  • Orthographic rules

    • It refers to the spelling rules used in a particular language to model the spelling changes that occur in a word. For example, when a stem ‘cook’ is attached with the morphemeing’, it becomes a new valid word with the spelling ‘cooking’. What happened here was the concatenation of two strings. This is not true for all words. If we attach the morphemeing’ with the word ‘care’, the spelling changes to ‘caring’ rather than ‘careing’. In this case, it was not just concatenation but it also involved removal of the letter ‘e’.

  • Morphotactics

    • In a natural language, a word may have many morphemes attached to it as affixes (prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix). Morphotactics is about placing morphemes with stem to form a meaningful word. It gives the details about which classes of morpheme can follow which other classes of morpheme. For example, in English language the plural morpheme (s or es) follows the stem.

Types of morphology:

(How many ways to combine different morphemes to create words?)

The following are the broad classes of morphology;
  • Compounding - Combination of multiple word stems together
  • Cliticization - Combination of a word stem with a clitic

what is morphology

how morphology is useful in natural language processing

types of morphology in English and other languages

Define inflectional morphology

define derivational morphology

What are the important components of a morphological processor 

List the components needed for building a morphological parser

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