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## Entity Relationship Diagram Exercise 3

Question:
Convert/reduce the ER Diagram given in figure 1 below;
 Figure 1 - ER diagram with Many to One relationship

Solution:

Given in the figure;

Entity sets and relationship sets

 Name Entity set / Relationship set Type Scientist Entity set Strong entity set Invention Entity set Strong entity set Invents Relationship set Many-to-One relationship

Entity set Scientist

 Attributes Attribute Type Description SID Simple and Primary key Scientist ID SName Simple Scientist Name RArea Simple Research Area Country Simple Country

Entity set Invention

 Attributes Attribute Type Description IID Simple and Primary key Invention ID IName Simple Name of the invention Year Simple Year of invention

Reduction into relational schema

Strong entity setsEntity set that has a primary key to uniquely represent each entity is Strong entity set.
Strong entity sets can be converted into relational schema by having the entity set name as the relation schema name and the attributes of that entity set as the attributes of relation schema.
Then we have,
Scientist (SID, SName, RArea, Country)
Invention (IID, IName, Year)

Relationship setThe association between two or more entity sets is termed as relationship set.
A relationship may be either converted into a separate table or not. That can be decided based on the type of the relationship. Only many-to-many relationship needs to be created as a separate table.

Here, we are given a many-to-one relationship. That means,

• one entity (record/row) of Scientist is related to only one entity (records/rows) of Invention entity set (that is, a scientist is involved in only one invention) and,
• one entity (record/row) of Invention is related to one or more entities (records/rows) of Scientist entity set. (that is, one or more scientists collectively invented one thing).

To reduce the relationship Invents into relational schema, we need to include the primary key of one side relation schema (i.e., Invention) into the many side relation (i.e., Scientist) as foreign key. For example, in our case we can derive the final set of relation schemas as follows;

Include IID of Invention as the foreign key of Scientist
Scientist (SID, SName, RArea, Country, IID)
Invention (IID, IName, Year)

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