Advanced Database Management System - Tutorials and Notes: Tree data structure

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Tuesday, 13 March 2018

Tree data structure

Tree Data Structure


Tree is a non-linear data structure [arrays, linked lists, stacks, and queues are linear data structure] made up of nodes and edges that are directed. Here the direction is from parent to children.
A tree can be empty with no nodes or a tree may consists of root node and zero or one or more sub-trees.

Tree has the following properties;

  • Only one node is the root node (root does not have an incoming edge/link).
  • Every other node is connected by a directed edge from exactly one other node. The node connected by a directed edge is the child node and the node where the link comes from is the parent node.
  • Every node can have any number of children.
  • If a node B has a path from node A, then A is called ancestor and B is called descendant.
  • Nodes without any children is called leaf node (external node).
  • Nodes with at least one child is called internal node.
  • Set of nodes that have edges coming in from same node are called siblings.
  • The number of edges from the root node to the deepest leaf node is the height of the tree.
  • A set of nodes and edges that are connecting a node with its descendants is called as the path. The length of a path is 1 less than the number of nodes on that path.
  • The number of children that a node has is called as degree of that node.
  • A node B of a tree with all of its descendants is called as sub-tree with B as its root node.


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